- Ludwig [lood-vikh, loot-] /ˈlud vɪx, ˈlut-/, 1844–1906, Austrian physicist.
- Ludwig (ˈluːtvɪç). 1844–1906, Austrian physicist. He established the principle of the equipartition of energy and developed the kinetic theory of gases with J. C. Maxwell
- Austrian physicist who developed statistical mechanics, the branch of physics that explains how the properties of atoms (such as mass and structure) determine the visible properties of matter (such as viscosity and heat conduction). Through his investigations of thermodynamics, Boltzmann developed numerous theories about the laws governing atomic motion and energy.