- the study of complex and chaotic systems and how order, pattern, and structure can arise from them.
- the theory that processes having a large number of seemingly independent agents can spontaneously order themselves into a coherent system.
- maths the study of complex systems, including subjects such as chaos theory and genetic algorithms
- computing a field in theoretical computer science dealing with the resources required during computation to solve a given problem
- See computational complexity.
- Any of various branches of mathematics, physics, computer science, and other fields, concerned with the emergence of order and structure in complex and apparently chaotic systems. See also chaos.