- 1017–56, king of Germany 1039–56 and emperor of the Holy Roman Empire 1046–56 (son of Conrad II).
- 1207–72, king of England 1216–72 (son of John).
- 1551–89, king of France 1574–89 (son of Henry II of France).
- 1017–56, king of Germany and Holy Roman Emperor (1046–56). He increased the power of the Empire but his religious policy led to rebellions
- 1207–72, king of England (1216–72); son of John. His incompetent rule provoked the Barons’ War (1264–67), during which he was captured by Simon de Montfort
- 1551–89, king of France (1574–89). He plotted the massacre of Huguenots on St Bartholomew’s Day (1572) with his mother Catherine de’ Medici, thus exacerbating the religious wars in France