- a city on S Honshu, in central Japan: the capital of Japan a.d. 794–1868.
- a city in central Japan, on S Honshu: the capital of Japan from 794 to 1868; cultural centre, with two universities (1875, 1897). Pop: 1 387 264 (2002 est)
city in Japan, from kyo + to, both meaning “capital.” Founded 794 as Heionkyo “Capital of Calm and Peace,” it also has been known as Miyako and Saikyo. Kyoto Protocol so called because it was initially adopted Dec. 11, 1997, in the Japanese city.