- a republic in S Europe since 2006: formerly a constituent republic of Yugoslavia, in the SW part (1918–2006); an independent kingdom 1878–1918. 6333 sq. mi. (13,812 sq. km). Capital: Podgorica.
- a republic in S central Europe, bordering on the Adriatic; declared a kingdom in 1910 and united with Serbia, Croatia, and other territories in 1918 to form Yugoslavia; remained united with Serbia as the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia when the other Yugoslav constituent republics became independent in 1991–92; Union of Serbia and Montenegro formed in 2003 and dissolved 2006. Mainly mountainous. Language: Serbian (Montenegrin). Religion: Orthodox Christian majority. Currency: euro. Capital: Podgorica. Pop: 653 474 (2013 est). Area: 13 812 sq km (5387 sq miles)
Adriatic coastal nation, from Venetian Italian (Tuscan monte nero), literally “black mountain,” a loan-translation of the local Slavonic name, Crnagora. Related: Montenegrine.