- the principle that the rate of production of heat by a constant direct current is directly proportional to the resistance of the circuit and to the square of the current.
- the principle that the internal energy of a given mass of an ideal gas is solely a function of its temperature.
- physics the principle that the heat produced by an electric current is equal to the product of the resistance of the conductor, the square of the current, and the time for which it flows
- thermodynamics the principle that at constant temperature the internal energy of an ideal gas is independent of volume. Real gases change their internal energy with volume as a result of intermolecular forces