- Cell Biology. a specialized, impulse-conducting cell that is the functional unit of the nervous system, consisting of the cell body and its processes, the axon and dendrites.
n.“a nerve cell with appendages,” 1891, from German Neuron, from Greek neuron (see neuro-). Used earlier (1884) for “the spinal cord and brain.” n.
- Any of the impulse-conducting cells that constitute the brain, spinal column, and nerves, consisting of a nucleated cell body with one or more dendrites and a single axon.nerve cell neurocyte
- A cell of the nervous system. Neurons typically consist of a cell body, which contains a nucleus and receives incoming nerve impulses, and an axon, which carries impulses away from the cell body. Also called nerve cell
The basic unit of nerve tissue; the nerve cells. Neurons carry and transmit electrical signals throughout the nervous system.